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Begining skiers and inside ski

post #1 of 37
Thread Starter 
I had a woman show up for a level 4 lesson. She was in her late 40's and this was only her 6th day on snow.
We sidestepped up the hill and did a few turns just to check we could go up the chair o.k.. (Almost every time I skip that step I regret it) She made parallel turns, o.k. lets go. In talking to her I found out she did a lot of roller blading in the summer. It sure was helping in the winter.

In skiing she had somewhat of an A frame with very good edging of the outside ski, and frequent lifting of the inside ski. Nice balance with no attempts at twisting the body to turn. (God bless roller blades)
No use of poles at all. Not able to do a hockey stop yet.
We worked on releasing her edges since she was very good at edging but not releasing and I figured this would help with the lifting of the inside ski. She had difficulty going from a traverse on edge to a flat ski and steering the tips uphill. Also tough to just slip downhill from a standstill. Worked on this a while, and went back to making turns. She had been worried about making it down a moderate pitch so we worked on a line down that. Inside ski lift a little less.
Did some more slipping/steering excercises and introduced hockey stop. She tended to edge before her skis had slid sideways enough. Got to the point of a little success with hockey stop she understood the concept anyway.
Back to trail and making turns. To help with steeper pitch introduced pole plant. This leads to hand dropping/raising during turns. (I somewhat regret the pole intro). She likes to go pretty fast on the flatter parts. We go down the pitch and stop. I show her another steeper pitch to the side. I go down a few turns. "You lifted your inside ski on that first turn!" she tells me. I side step up and explain it's not wrong to lift, sometimes it's necessary.
She makes it down this steeper part and we ski in.

My questions:

-Why does the inside ski get hung up? On many people it's much more to one side than another, is this from differences in leg use/strength or alignment problems?

-What are good excercises to work on for that?

-Since she was lifting the inside ski should I have taught her to tip it to the little toe side when putting it down? (I know the answer from Mr. Harb)

-How do you balance excercises and "skiing"?

-Have others experienced new skiers who rollerblade a lot?


So her concern was skiing down the pitch of the blue slope.
post #2 of 37
First, her inability to side slip downhill and her tendency to edge her skis before they slid sideways are probably related to fear issues. I've noticed many woman tend to be a little bit "edged" into the hill on side slips, and on hockey stops, that last little bit of sliding prior to edging the skis uphill may feel a little too much like a "giving up" of control.
If she had not read in some Harb book about the lifting of the inside ski, my guess is that this could be some sort of variationon how people who are relatively fit and strong will sometimes "muscle" their skis. The act of lifting, in itself, is a muscular activity, that has nothing to do with the use of the ankles to edge the ski.
My favorite exercise for this was this very simple thing I learned at Bretton Woods called "2 flat 2". Its easy. Start with both skis edged uphill, then flatten them, then edge both skis downhill. Voila, your'e turning!
Interesting, but the ladies in the class kept neglecting the flattening stage of the sequence, and wanted to rush the cadence, a bit. The instructor stood downhill and used his ski pole like a conductor's baton, slowing us down 2.. flat.. 2. Humorous, but very effective, if only as an awareness exercise of what you are doing with your ankles. Once she's established a kinesthetic awareness of what is supposed to be happening with her ankles, you may want to check on her ability to edge her skis simultaneously, as opposed to sequentially. If there is a lagging of one ski in the edging process, the skis won't carve properly, and alot of skidding will result.

You mentioned that the problem with her inside ski was more prevalent on one side than the other. The human body only looks like its built evenly, unfortunately. She may have uneven leg length/strength or alignment problems that are prevalent in her daily activities, that are simply magnified on the hill.
Hope this helps

Be Braver in your body, or your luck will leave you. DH Lawrence
post #3 of 37
One main reason that people can't get off that edge is they atill have their weight on it, imagine what happens as a skier moves their CM into the next turn and onto the other ski. The ski that was previously edged, is now allowed to move and match with the outside ski.
As for excersizes, try a basic traverse where both skis track an evenly edged ski, eg: no skidding. Side slipping is also good, I am also imagining that she does not have much upper/lower body seperation. Have her pick a target at the end of a slope (down the fall line) and tell her she must keep her shoulders facing it. Also Skating, this while a basic task will get her to shift her weight onto the next ski allowing the other ski to release. If she is feeling more comfortable with this you might even try linked hockey stops, this will facilitate edge changes in both directions.

sorry for the shotgunning of ideas but hopefully it'll help.
post #4 of 37
Another thought, since I actually learned this one at Okemo. Normally, I wouldn't recommend this for someone who has only skied 6 times, but since she's a rollerblader, she might be a bit braver. How about the Falling Leaf? In order to get from the backward slip to the foward slip, she will need to release her edges. OOOh I love these late night stream of consciousness ramblings!

Be Braver in your body, or your luck will leave you. DH Lawrence
post #5 of 37

While I am not a PSIA instructor, I do have a few ideas that may help.

1. Is your student skiing on her own equipment or rental?
2. Is the fear thing a lack in confidence of ever knowing when she is balanced, and or being able to easily return to a balanced position ? There may be some alignment issues here that have not been considered, especially with her boot and fit of boot.
3. Does she understand that after some time on the slopes, that she may need to tighten her boot buckles down a little more to get the needed support.
4. Since she is an inline skater, she should easily understand how to roll her legs, ankles and knees similtaneously from one turn to the other. Use that skill in making her a better skier. BTW inline skaters don't usually do hockey stops. Skidding is foreign concept to them, it is not something they strive for. "Carving" to a stop is usually what advanced in line skaters do, rather than using the brakes. Keep that in mind if you ever have her as student again.

I hope the above will give you some ideas to help you with what appears to be a very motivated and promising student.
post #6 of 37
What were the conditions when you were trying to teach this? I had a rough time last week trying to find a spot that had a hard enough surface for this exercise. The sloppy granular was giving the students a real hard time.
post #7 of 37

There can be a few reasons people get hung up on the inside ski, and end up lifting it. One reason is that they are still finishing the old turn, trying to control their speed a bit more, while at the same time, starting the new turn with the other foot. This can be eliminated by having them finish the turn strongly with both feet (the inside foot of the old turn), before moving into the new turn. The other main reason for the problem is that they don't get their CM across the downhill foot, so the ski gets hung up on it's inside edge, and therefore, they need to lift it to get it off that edge. Having the student tip that new inside ski onto its outside edge (left edge of left ski) will help. This move is not a HH patent. I was using it years before Harb came up with PMTS. Another way to help with this, if she has really good balance (which she may, from rollerblading), is to make, what I call, wrong-footed turns. To do this, you traverse the hill on your downhill foot, and make the turn completely on that foot. Then switch feet as you start the next traverse, but finish the turn slightly on the downhill foot, lifting the uphill foot, then make the new turn only on that downhill (inside) foot. So you end up making left turns on your left foot and right turns on your right foot. But the importiant part is that you get on that foot *before* you make the move to initiate the new turn.
post #8 of 37

In-line skaters, when turning, use both feet evenly weighted. When you put an in-line skater on skis, he/she will probably try to use both feet to turn and quickly realize that the balance and technique required to do that is radically different from in-line skates. The exact same thing will happen when you spend some time on skiboards (snowblades) and then switch to long skis. Therefore your student is possibly trying to avoid putting pressure on the inside ski, but she is overcompensating by lifting the ski off the snow altogether. My wife (we have been in-line skating for 10 years, BTW) also has a tendency to lift the inside ski - especially in difficult conditions.

I don't know how to cure that via exercises, but pure carved traverses is a good way to start. I would also suggest that she try a gliding wedge, where the outside ski steers with near-carved turns, but the inside ski has full snow contact. Slowly she can close the wedge as she becomes more comfortable. The idea is to get the student to realize that LATERAL balance adjustments have to occur when going from "short" to "long" (I am not sure how else to put it). The student has to find the right amount of inside edge which is a happy medium between completely lifting the inside ski "out of the way" and full edging.

I am also wondering how long her skis are. The longer the skis, the more difficult it will be to steer with the inside ski (unless you opt for the PMTS method). Hope this helps.
post #9 of 37
Very common problem from level 1 to experts it just show's up on different terrain or conditions. The cause is usually because the person did not release the old outside ski to go down the hill, they have done something else like tried moving to the new outside ski instead of moving away from it. If you move to the new outside ski the old one gets pulled to a higher edge. Just what you did not want. I think a great activity for this especially someone like you described is (crab walks) A crab walk you are in a wedge on flat terrain pointing down the fall line. Simply roll your ankle knee and thigh of the left leg to flaten that ski. Don't do anything with the other! You will move sideways across the hill(like a crab) Then to go back right repeat the movement with the right leg! THESE ARE NOT TURNS! you should see a smeared track of the flat ski and a carved track of the other wedged leg. Do this back and forth until they can do it smoothly then just have them turn the tip of the flat ski away from the edged ski. Don't turn the edged ski! They will start to learn to flatten the ski in order to turn left and right. You have got to let go of one turn if you want to go a new direction. Be careful of people ending up standing on the flat ski. Just flatten it don't move your weight to it. Balance still gets directed to the outside ski(the edged one in this exercise). This is great for all levels but because your in a wedge on flat terrain even a level 1 can do this!!! Teach people to move away from there ski's not towards them and good things will happen. Good Luck! TodO
post #10 of 37
Good points, Tog. I was making the mistake of looking at her class level {4} rather than her apparent abilities. The exercises I described were things I learned in level 4, and even level 3, but as you teachers have to deal with, there are Level 4s, and there are level 4s. Its all pretty irrelevant in the long run. I also tend to regard rollerbladers as fearless maniacs!

I read about an interesting exercise which involves taking off a glove and putting it under the outside edge of the ski. Then, have the student "crush the fingers" of the glove by rolling their little toe onto it. If anything, it would promote a kinesthetic awareness of the actions involved in flattening the ski.

The only way I was able to teach MYSELF to sideslip was to start by edging both skis uphill, and exaggerating that movement. Then, I would release the edges and flatten them

BTW, if you guys look at the time of our posts, keep in mind the board posts on west coast time, but we are in the east. I wonder if since we are skiers our "inner time clocks" want us to be out west. Anyway, its always great to find a "partner in crime" for my chronic insomnia!

Be Braver in your body, or your luck will leave you. DH Lawrence
post #11 of 37
Thread Starter 
truly we have a problem to be up this late on the computer so often!

She was pretty even in terms of left/right leg. I've just noticed it in others.

Falling leaf- beyond her present ability it requires very subtle edging skills plus you have to slide backwards! scary. It was hard enough for her just to achieve simple side slip.

2 flat 2 interesting, but again too difficult and scary. Edge downhill? yikes! Just getting to zero edge angle was difficult. We did try a somewhat similar thing where one traverses on 2 uphill edges, then flattens and steers uphill,then steer back and git on 2 edges, then flat and steer downhill. This we had some success with.

It's interesting that rollerblades are always "on edge". So people who've rollered a lot would seek that secure feeling of an edged ski?
Also interesting that perhaps rollers understand (or their body "knows") that you control everything with your feet and so they don't attempt to turn their skis by twisting their body in knots. I discussed this a bit with the student and she thought it was so obvious. She'd never considered any other way.

The drill where you face down the hill I don't do because it just confuses people. Sometimes you see people skiing that way and you know they did that drill and thought that was "the" way. It really only relates to skiing quite steep pitches. Or am I missing something?
post #12 of 37
The inside ski lift most frequently is a part of weight transfer. It's especially prevalent in folks who first learned to turn by pushing out the tail of the outside ski. They commonly rotate the body into the direction of the turn, but Tog said his subject did not have that problem. The differential edging drill (flattening one edge while in an equally weighted gliding wedge) can help give the student the idea that both feet should be involved in the weight transfer. Another drill I use for inside ski lifters is accentuated extensions with both legs (press both feet into the snow) at initiation. Lately, I've been quite successful inviting these clients to focus on turning the fronts of their skis. After a bunch of turns with frequent reminders to turn the fronts, I suggest they think about turning just the new inside ski shovel while allowing the new outside foot to accommodate the results. After extensive practicing in this mode, I ask them to tell me how soon in a turn they are engaging the outside edge of the inside ski.
post #13 of 37
Thread Starter 
Couldn't get away from work today to answer above questions.

Equipment: Soloman rental shape skis "X free" Size about 145cm. Boots rental front entry 4 buckle. I usually check tightness/fit of top cuff when problem w/control but didn't in this case.

Conditions: Perfect packed powder.

In fact I have Arnold here: "Ya! Ahnold here. Yuki! Vhat ist dis 'sloppy granular' eh? Here on dis mountan ve haf not allowd such things ya?! Ve haf powda! Damp ya, but powda! Soft ast un Austrian down pillow ya? Vhen ve skid snow spreads like de vhipped buttah! Teekets only 35 dohlars und no vone heer! Vyou must come to Vairmont ya?! "

"Yuki! De skiairs dat vant to schuss use dos 'floros'. I haf purchased vor all de instructairs! I like des lessons vere ve go vfast yah?! Ah! muust go! Maria haf de schnitzel prepared! Come up here! I haf more 'floros'!"
(apologies to Arnold S on forum but too much fun!)

O.k. vhat ist...sorry.. What is the HH/psia cowboy turn? Is that turning with your feet really far apart? I've done turns like that were you really have to extend the outside leg to turn. Is that the point?

John H:
You mean "Tip the ski to the little toe side" is not copyrighted by Harald? Now I feel better. Is the object of the 'wrong footed' turns to get the c of m more downhill?


>In-line skaters are keenly aware that turning is speed control< - TomB
Good point. This certainly serves them well. Also good point about their dislike of skidding. It's odd, but it seems as if with rollerbladers we have to emphasize skidding while with others it's carving.


The 'crab walk'. Are these not large turns? How do you go 'sideways'? I'm scared. "Arnold!"
This brings up an interesting discussion on flattening the inside ski. O.k., let's take the people whose inside ski is constantly on edge preventing them from turning in a wedge. Is it not better to stress a lengthening of the outside leg or moving the belly button (non technical c of m term) more inside the turn? (The 'longer/shorter' leg thing.)
That opposed to emphasizing the rolling of the inside knee/ankle more inside the turn to flatten the inside ski. ('crab walk' excercise). Isn't the lengthening of the outside leg/moving cm inside more on the path to (and part of) advanced skiing?

>I also tend to regard rollerbladers as fearless maniacs!<
Well, they certainly seem comfortable with mild speed!
These outside edges/inside edges terms often get confusing. I heard a story from an instructor about this. He had a kid who really liked math. So they numbered the edges of the skis starting at the left with 1,2 3,4 . Then the instructor would shout out "One and three!", or "Two and four!". The kid loved it but I think
most people would go nuts.

Jim O'D:

Ah "smearing". I had to explain that term. (not native english speaking) Conditions were perfect for that. You could clearly see the difference in tracks between edging and smearing.

thanks to all for responses
post #14 of 37
i use it as just that a drill not nesicarily (sp) as a skill, I use it more to lead a student into allowing their CM to flow better down the fall line. Depending on where you use this drill it could be almost impossible to preform while having your upper body positioned towards the object all the time, so I have used a gentler hill with small/med rad turns. Basically it is part of a progression and helps the student to seperate upper/lower body.
It is different for each student how you can go about teaching them a given task, sometimes it takes a little of everything before it will start to click.
post #15 of 37
"How do you go sideways? I'm scared! Arnold!!"

HA HA HA HA!!!! That is SO CUTE!!!

Be Braver in your body, or your luck will leave you. DH Lawrence
post #16 of 37
crab turns are not really going directly sideways, basically you are in a wedge and to move laterally you rail the outside ski, which moves you over and in effect drags/pushes (depending on POV) the inside ski along. These are good for learning what edging can do, and how you can flex the knee and roll the hip to put the ski on edge.
This is my understanding of crab turns.
post #17 of 37
Tog- See if I can answer your questions.
1. The crab walk is a pure carve of the outside ski so it is as large as the sidecut of the ski your on. The key is not to let people think it is a turn because most skiers will twist the outside ski!!!
2. You actually move sideways and forward.(sorry about that) The how is because you are just flattening the ski and moving away from the outside leg. The more you move away from the outside ski the more pressure builds and bends the ski. The outside ski edge engages and the side cut takes you across the hill.
3. You asked about long leg short leg and lengthing the outside leg. This is what happens. As you flex and flatten the left leg to go left the right leg lengthings.(vice/versa). In order to legthing the outside leg correctly you need to have something to extend from. It is important to flatten and start tipping the legs the new direction in order to allow the CM to move inside before you extend the leg.
3. Advance skiing moves YES! We need to teach correct movement patterns from level 1 on up. On flat terrain this can be a very low level exercise, but teaches what we need to do to move effeciently on skis. Don't teach dead end movements. If you roll and flatten the old outside ski to start your turn you will see the outside leg lengthens but this is much cleaner than trying to start by lengthing that move tends to send you more up and over.
Edge release is the key to skiing, most people hold on to turns to long and some of it has been cause by how some people have taught skiers to shift there weight from foot to foot resulting in them moving to their ski instead of away from it. Just like on a bike we direct our CM to the inside of the turn as pressure builds to the outside(tires or in our case outside ski). Down slowly and adding the turning of the flattened inside tip gives the smoothest wedge christy. Give it a try, Don't be afraid Arnold.<FONT size="1">

[This message has been edited by Todo (edited April 05, 2001).]</FONT>
post #18 of 37

That is correct. It is next to impossible to make a wrong-footed turn if you don't get the CM down the hill. The only way to cheat is to hop the tail of the ski up the hill.
post #19 of 37
Thread Starter 
So teaching the flattening and rolling of the inside ski is a better way to go? As opposed to teaching moving cm inside turn or lengthening the outside leg?

Are lengthening the outside leg and moving cm in really "dead end moves" ?

I suppose it would be better to start with the flatening/rolling inside ski moves before the moving cm down hill ('wrong footed turns')?

The crab turn: Ah, I feel better. I thought you were Toto and I wasn't in Kansas anymore!
--- ----
"Arnold! Put the monitor down! It's o.k.! Yeah I figured it out. Here, take this can of Dinty Moore beef stew and go back to your tent!
Opener!? You 'eat green berets for breakfast' and you want an opener?
NO! Wait! The Rug!
O.K., O.K.! Second drawer on left in kitchen.
Huh? Yeah, Yeah. I'll put the flouros on tonight!
Damn Arnold, a little powder and you just turn into a total wuss. You need to ski ice again!
Now get back to your tent!"
post #20 of 37

It's not necessarily a better way to go, it's just a different way to go. Some people just can't get their body to move the right way and get the right feelings by extending the outside leg. Usually, because when they extend the outside leg, they move their mass in the wrong direction (vertically). These "wrong-footed" turns, just sort of force the issue. They also prove to someone who thinks they are moving correctly, whether they are or are not moving the mass across the skis.

You said "As opposed to teaching moving cm inside turn...". This exercise does teach moving the CM inside the turn. It's not just rolling the inside knee.

Just take it as another item in your bag of tricks. And when other moethods don't seem to be working well, try this one, and see what results you get. That's all I'm saying.
post #21 of 37

My favorite exercise for this is garlands, making sure that the student extends to flatten the skis so that they will release the edges and drift slightly down hill and then flexes to perform the uphill portion of the garland. I explain that the garland practices the beginning and the end of the turn without actually going directly down the hill so that speed control is not an issue. People seem less reluctant to let go of the uphill edges when they know that they are not going to go through the fall line. It doesn't really matter whether the skis are in a wedge or parallel.

I usually introduce this with a shallow traverse across a gentle slope followed by another traverse with some edge releases and diagonal slipping, which seems easier for most people than a straight side slip. I emphasise the idea of extending to help with the edge release to start the slip and flexing to re-engage the edge to go back to the traverse.

To help anchor the idea of flexing and extending I sometimes have the students do a wedge changeup exercise on a gentle slope where they start in a straight run and then extend as they steer the skis into a wedge, then flex as they let the skis return to parallel. This exercise helps to establish the wedge as a gliding maneuver on fairly flat skis rather than a braking maneuver on edged skis, and the idea that the skis can be steered if they are flat.

post #22 of 37

>>My favorite exercise for this is garlands<<

This too is one of my favorites for the same reason that you mentioned in your great post on this exercise. After the skier understands the exercise, and how just by standing up or extending the skis flatten, it's time to move on to moving up and across to start the new turn.---------Wigs
post #23 of 37
Garlands were a breakthrough exercise for me. I never learned them in a traverse, just pointing straight down the hill. But that was something I was always terrified to do. However, the knowledge that no matter how steep the slope was on the way down, I could always turn the skis, steeply uphill, this was a major confidence builder! I think for Tog's student, the idea of trying this on a traverse may be less intimidating.

Be Braver in your body, or your luck will leave you. DH Lawrence
post #24 of 37

Sometimes rollerbladers can use their skis exactly the way they would rollerblades (resulting in parallel basically carved turns) but they have to have "line" explained or they can't deal with the speed and steepness they get on harder terrain.

Could your student just be getting worried about the speed she's gaining and trying to hurry the turn, therefore lifting the inside ski? I agree with the garlands idea!

~Michelle H.
post #25 of 37
Thread Starter 
All these Sat. posts! I'm usually on the farside of the moon then.

>To help anchor the idea of flexing and extending I sometimes have the students do a wedge changeup exercise on a gentle slope where they start in a straight run and then extend as they steer the skis into a wedge, then flex as they let the skis return to parallel. This exercise helps to establish the wedge as a gliding maneuver on fairly flat skis rather than a braking maneuver on edged skis, and the idea that the skis can be steered if they are flat.< - JimL

So I presume that the extending for the wedge keeps the knees from rolling in a lot and gives you a flatter ski?

So now,

>After the skier understands the exercise, and how just by standing up or extending the skis flatten, it's time to move on to moving up and across to start the new turn< -Wigs

For this we've got rolling the (new) inside foot to the little toe and John H's wrong footed turns post? Wrong footed definitely only for very well balanced people.

Wigs (or anyone else) what excercise do you work with to move across to start the turn?

>Could your student just be getting worried about the speed she's gaining and trying to hurry the turn, therefore lifting the inside ski?< -skiandsb

No, on the flat she was quite happy cruising along at a good clip and loved to keep going when I stopped!

Interesting that yesterday I had two kids (never evers) who bladed also. They really were locked on their edges.
hmmm... there's something in the air...
post #26 of 37

Wigs (or anyone else) what excercise do you work with to move across to start the turn? <<

Flattening the old outside ski, or getting the student to try and roll the ankle of that old outside ski will cause the students CM to move in the new desired direction. Also I like to get the student to stand up when the idea of a direction change comes to mind. This will help flatten the skis, and then kinda fall or move into the new direction of travel. Both work well, if you can get the new skiers to release the edges and become a little bit more aggressive. This of coarse works better if the student has a match or parallel stance at the end of the turn, and is still not in a wedge. --------Wigs
post #27 of 37
Thread Starter 
Thanks for your reply. Though it's been awhile as I remember it this skier was pretty foot oriented. Maybe she was tipping somewhat inside the turn preventing her from releasing that inside edge. I was looking at it as she wouldn't flatten her foot/ski.
She certainly liked speed on the flatter parts of the trail, and only became intimidated by the steeper parts. (only her 6th day on snow)

>>It is perhaps skiing's most prevalent--and most technically destructive--myth, that turns are for "speed control." << -BobBarnes

Bob, I see your point that people can become defensive skiers if taught this but isn't it in fact true? For example, last weekend I skied at Sugarloaf in Maine. Coming down 'White Nitro' which is pretty steep but flat as a pancake, I made turns ending perpendicular to the fall line to control my rate of descent. Now I could have made straighter turns and gone down faster, or I could have gone straight down but I would have been going at least 40 mph at the transition. I don't see any myth here but perhaps I need to be enlightened.

I've heard it said that you control speed with 'line' but if your line is made of turns doesn't it follow that you control speed down the hill with turns?

Anyone else want to comment?
post #28 of 37
It is perhaps skiing's most prevalent--and most technically destructive--myth, that turns are for "speed control." << -BobBarnes

Myth? Really? Turning back and forth across the fall lines doesn't control your speed? It works for me! By turning you reduce the average effective slope of the ski slope and thus turn a black run into a blue run (in effect). How do you suggest you control your speed: sideslip? drag your poles? hit an occasionally tree?
post #29 of 37
Tog and Crudmeister,
Bob mentioned that the myth is that turns are for speed control. I believe that this is correct. however a happy result of good skiing and turning is speed control. If you are turning (carving) and never allowing your skis to turn/carve to completion or even starting back up the hill, you will just keep picking up speed. The speed control comes from continuing your turn until you are at a speed you are comfortable at and starting your next turn at that point. If that means turning until you are actually going up hill for a little then your CM is actually moving against gravity you will slow down not the actual process of turning. When I chase after great carvers or racers even on flat hills I have a hard time keeping up with them because they are carving and I am scrubbing off speed by skidding and not carving.
When in a class with my cousin(who went to a race camp and is much better and faster than I am) we were both struggling to keep up with our small but very quick instructor. He asked her, "you are so petite and compact and on short skis, How do you go so fast?" Her response, "carve em or park em!"
So, turns are not speed control, How you use the turn is.

I hope my simple explaination does your more technical and detailed explaination justice.<FONT size="1">

[This message has been edited by dchan (edited April 26, 2001).]</FONT>
post #30 of 37
I use turns to control my speed and change direction or line. Depending on the type of turn, I can slow down or increase my speed.
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