Great question, Matt. Yes, differences in body types and proportions certainly affect skiing movements. Obviously, it's not just a male-female thing, but there are some "typical" differences worth noting.
Typically, women's centers of mass are lower in proportion to their height than men's. Women's arms and upper bodies are typically proportionately lighter, and their hips/pelvic regions heavier. And women's femurs tend to be longer, proportionately to their height, than men.
What does all this mean? In the basic neutral stance, there may be subtle differences between the "typical" man and the "typical" woman--different combinations of ankle, knee, hip, and spine flex, and perhaps arm/hand position. But the real significance of the anatomical differences appears when they start moving.
Imagine Average Joe and Average Jane, both centered over their feet, in well-set-up equipment (a critical issue in itself). Now imagine them both flexing deeply, as when absorbing a large mogul. Ankles don't bend significantly in stiff boots, so the lowest joint that moves much is the knees. When the knees bend, the hips move back, and the arms and upper body must bend forward to compensate.
But here, the anatomical differences I described conspire to make it more difficult for "Jane" to maintain balance. Her heavier hips move even farther back because of her longer femurs, and her lighter arms and shoulders aren't as easily able to compensate. It is common for women to lose balance to the back more easily than men when deeply flexed.
Even in the more upright, neutral stance, think how common it is to see women bent forward at the waist, arms stretched forward, just to remain centered on their feet.
What's Jane to do? If she could bend her ankles a little, or lift her heels, she could easily stay centered when she flexes low, as she can without boots and skis. But she can't (and softening the boots to allow the ankles to flex more creates its own problems).
She can, however, adjust the FORWARD LEAN of her boots. A little more cuff angle moves her knees forward, thereby moving everything above forward a little too. She could then straighten her upper body up a little in the neutral stance, and increase her range of flexion without losing balance to the rear. Simple!
Jane can increase her lower leg angle by either increasing the forward lean of her boot cuffs, or by elevating the heels of her boots to tip the whole boot forward. (Lifts INSIDE the boots don't have the same effect. In fact, they can have the reverse effect, as we'll see in a moment.)
But wait--there's a catch! While a slightly increased lower leg angle can be helpful for many women, there's another anatomical factor that actually causes many women to have TOO MUCH lower leg angle! Women's calf muscles typically taper more abruptly and the "belly" of the muscle is typically much lower on their leg--often extending into the top of the boot. Anyone who has worked in a rental shop is well aware of the "syndrome" of women with very large, low calf muscles who need extenders on the buckles just to get their boots closed!
But even "average" women's calf muscles often interfere with the boot cuff, especially since so many boots are designed around men's feet and legs. Even with the boot comfortably closed, that large calf muscle in the back has the effect of creating much more forward lean for "Jane" than the same boot for "Joe." And TOO MUCH forward lean makes it awkward to maintain fore-aft balance, without remaining in a deep crouch. The typical "look" of this problem is the woman who skis with her back very upright, perhaps even holding her elbows way back. Unlike the previous example, this woman can't EXTEND her knees without moving too far FORWARD!
What can she do? She could adjust her boots more upright, or even lift the toes of her boots a little. But a better solution is to fix the boot fit problem. Lower cuffed, woman-specific boots are becoming more common. I've known female instructors to actually cut the tops off the backs of their boot cuffs to better fit their calf muscles. Heel lifts INSIDE the boots can help somewhat too, by raising the entire leg a little higher and allowing the boot cuff to close around a narrower part of the leg.
What this all means is that boot fit and boot setup is often even more critical for women than for men. The effect of forward boot lean is amplified in women, so it must be dialed in accurately. Just a little bit off can cause big problems, restricting range of motion, and requiring inefficient compensating movements.
As far as "teaching differently" goes--your original question, Matt--I'd just say that being sensitive and aware of these and other potential issues is critical--for all skiers. Every skier is built a little--or a lot--differently, so the same movements will always look a little different for everyone. Not knowing which movements or "errors" are simply technique-related, and which are anatomy- or equipment-related, obviously makes an instructor a lot less effective!
There are other differences between men and women too (duh). Wider pelvises increase "Q-angle," the angle between the upper and lower leg at the knee. Improper technique makes knees more vulnerable to injury for anyone, but this too is magnified for people with large q-angles.
Jane has a few advantages over Joe, though. Good skiing starts with the feet. Bigger, more powerful upper bodies, combined perhaps with a testosterone-induced predisposition to muscle everything and "force" it to work, often makes it difficult for men to learn the subtle movements of skiing. But that's another story....
"Anatomy is destiny"