Originally Posted by Carver_hk
...May I ask does it mean if the skier want to go faster the skier should not get too early edge and skis bending?
Since you're primarily talking about carving I think you'd want to get an early edge angle to maintain or increase
speed. Any time we're traveling across the slope (meaning any angle other than straight downhill) we are not gaining the greatest acceleration possible from the slope.
If the skier cleanly carves the top of the turn then they will more quickly convert their motion from across the slope (less acceleration, maybe even deceleration) into motion down the slope (more acceleration) than is skidding or entering the turn slowly. Of course, if a skier partially pivots to an appropriate edge-set at the top of the turn they are likely to have a higher linear
speed three seconds later
than if they had carved out that longer turn entry. This is because in each future second they may be in a slower rate of acceleration than if they'd simply pivoted into a steeper line immediately (while conserving most of their previous linear speed).
I also think your assessment of centrifugal force at the top of the turn is (essentially) correct. The amount of centrifugal force (up the hill) at the top of our turn depends on existing linear speed across the slope (at that moment) and amount of curvature at the point it's measured. If you've ever skied down a steep hill into a valley and then into a sharp turn up the other side
then you will have experienced this more clearly. In this case, the skier's momentum is 'up' the new slope and it's quite easy to engage & ride the edges - even around the top of that particular turn.
Many skiers insist the upper body 'must always' be moving down the hill but this is just a preference
and not an absolute. If the skier directs their overall momentum across the slope late in the turn then they'll have enough overall momentum across the slope
to experience higher CF earlier in their new turn. A fast series of Octopus Turns might even provide uphill CF in the top of every turn.
Originally Posted by JASP
Our outward fleeing force is linear momentum and it is not radial, its perpendicular to the radius.
Something perpendicular to the radius
would be also be parallel with the Tangent
. Centrifugal force is always measured perpendicular to the Tangent, not perpendicular to the radius. There is no CF along the Tangent. CF arises from inertia as you mention but you are describing the Basis of CF
rather than using it in Applied Mechanics
to figure something out as Carver_hk is doing.
I suspect most of the force we feel at the end of a turn on steep terrain is not Centrifugal Force so much as it is our downward momentum
If we simply jump straight out from a 45-degree slope (in street shoes) and land ten feet down the slope we'll experience a huge amount of force upon landing with no CF involved. All the acceleration we get from unrestricted sliding down that same slope on skis has the same effect - we have just thrown in an arced lateral path
instead of our regular ballistic decent. That arced path to the side reduces the 'street-shoes landing' impact by spreading it out progressively
over the length of the turn from Apex to Finish.
Sure, some portion of this is CF, but if we do the math we'll find that CF is actually a small portion of it after all, think how slow
we're really going (in a linear sense) at that point. Now imagine turning at the same radius and speed on flat terrain.