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L3 PSIA-W thoughts (sorry it's long)

post #1 of 17
Thread Starter 
I took my LIII ski module at Alpine Meadows in early March. I did not pass but will share my thoughts on the process. I will be attempting again in April.

The skiing module both LII and LIII are the same format here in PSIA W. It is more like a clinic format rather than an exam (do these maneuvers/demos/tasks for a pass/fail). We ski with the same examiner for 3 days. (it has it's merits and flaws) We ski everything, from tasks, demos, movements, variations on movements and tasks, free ski. If you look at the ski requirements for a L2 or L3 instructors on the national website, you will have an idea of what is expected of the candidates. You should be skiing with these movements and showing the traits of a L x instructor 90% of the time regardless of the snow conditions, terrain, etc.

Day one, We meet with the examiners at 8:30 and get broken up into groups of 5 or 6. (my group had 6 the other 2 groups had 5 each) The head examiner for the event explains to us how it is going to work. The first day we are to go out and ski. We will practice movements, get coaching on our skiing and pretty much ski all over the mountain. The examiners are not really examining us but coaching us about our skiing and how to make it better. Where it needs to go to get to the L3 Standard. Day two will be more of the same but we will need to step it up. Day three will be less coaching (but there will be some) and more examining. If are skiing the "standard" 90% of the time on day 3, we will be invited back to the teaching portion of the exam.

The tasks we expect to ski are:
Railroad track turns
Retraction turns
Dynamic Short radius
Dynamic Medium Radius
Hop turns
One legged skiing
Pivot slips
Park requirements basic ATML
Pipe (if we had one) Entry, feet clear the coping, exit and reenter mid pipe. respect, and if you can, Olie Oop.

The terrain we will ski is sort of dependent on the groups ability, and the examiner's choices. They do need to see us on off piste, bumps, crud, Steeps and of course groomers. The tasks they explain, they will try to match to the terrain that is most appropriate for the task. Pivot slips on steep firm pack for instance. Hop turns on more steep terrain, etc..


My examiner is Tim Rankins, I have skied with him in the past in prep clinics so he knows how I used to ski (All those turns are in the past) We take a few warm up runs. He then asks the group how we want our feed back. In front of the group, right away, end of day, lunch, on the chairs, individual or general. Then we begin skiing some of the tasks and free skiing. The conditions for day one typical spring conditions, Very firm in the morning on the groomers, and firm in the bumps. As the snow softened up, off piste mostly meant setup firm mashed potato consistency snow that was bottomless. If you tried to plant a pole it went all the way to the grip. I find I am skiing the demos and tasks at slower speed very well and my feed back is I need to get my arms and upper body to be more dynamic, My arms and hands need to be more disciplined and move to make my core move down the hill. I need to shape the tops of my turns in bumps better and less speed checking at the bottoms of my turns. I need to maintain better ski snow contact through out the turn, (get those ski tips to dive into the troughs and engage the tips of the skis). As many of you have noticed in my Medium's I need to extend more (to the side) and get more stacked over that outside ski. I need to get a higher edge angle (again move forward and down hill) earlier in the turn. and I need to shape the finish of my turns more which will allow me to be more dynamic and get the skis to rebound and redirect.
RE: the terrain Tim picked, Any chance he got, we are off piste (60+%) which means that crud I mentioned. Try 5 mediums to 5 shorts, 5 mediums, 5 shorts, AT SPEED on Sherwood Forrest, the (steepest part) in deep crud.. Of course in my WISDOM I decided to go out the first day on a pair of 155 Salomon 10.3V Race slaloms. Wheeee.

Did I mention that the examiners might not stick to the "tasks" but might throw in a few variations of their own?

The 5 med, 5 short, (lane changes)
Retraction hop turns
Hop turns while keeping your tails on the ground
Hop turns while keeping your tips on the ground
Half hop turns (or hop to a shaped turn, edge set and hop to next shaped turn)
One legged skidded,
one legged full carve.
one legged but tip of lifted ski on the ground,
one legged but tail on the ground,
with pole plant, no pole plant,
Short, medium, long,
One leg only on inside edges (switch each turn)
one leg only on out side edges (switch each turn)
White pass turns,
Javelin turns,

RR short wiggles
RR medium,
RR very long

Retraction turns while skiing Medium Radius turns through bumps.

Short swing turns

Bumps, Short radius, maintain ski/snow contact
Bumps Med radius get some air,

And the list goes on..

The steeps included some cornice entries with maybe 5-8 ft drops right into some very steep chutes.
Skiing some bumps that drop over a knoll on to stuff you can't see until you are on them.

Day 2 we go in the park and ski a race course. We are in luck. There is a masters training course setup that we get permission to ski. No easy Nastar but a set that is more like a real course. (not FIS but not the easy Nastar either) We get to slip the course, and inspect it, learn a little about delays in the course set, and then we run the course a few times. We also got some video taken of our selves earlier (short radius and Medium Radius) so we can see what is going on. (still waiting for my copy of myself)

Each day we get a feedback sheet from the examiner telling us what we did good, what we need to work on, what exercises will help us get there, and what to expect the next day.

On day 1 I'm told I need to AMP it UP. Move down the hill, fix that upper body.
Day 2 I'm told I'm almost there.. I need to bring my best skiing day 3 but I'm real close. I'm making very good advancements in my skiing over just the 2 days.

How am I feeling at the end of each day?

To give a reference point, If I'm out free skiing with my dad, and take a few runs off on my own to get some steep and bump skiing in, I'll do 30-32K Vertical feet of skiing. No aches or pains by day's end. Teaching a whole weekend of kids and intermediates still no aches or pains. 6 straight days of skiing in Snowmass with my friends and family, NO PROBLEM
Day one, We skied 18-19K and I am beat.. Sore in places I have not been sore in years. Abs, quads, arms, etc..
Day Two, we skied just about 19K, and now he tells me I need to amp it up more. I'm REAL beat. I can hardly walk down the stairs.

So day 3 I'm skiing all out.. few crashes, few hitches along the way but I'm really beginning to feel what we have been working on the first 2 days. The skis are working better, I'm skiing the crud well. I've been working on getting my arms and hands more disciplined. and I'm feeling pretty good. but I don't own the movements enough to get there. At the end of day 3 I'm told, "You need to be in Mammoth in a Month, You are that close". Tim tells me he has never seen someone advance so far in 2 years. Part time or full time, and considering I'm coming back from the Femur Fracture, he is extremely impressed. He also mentions that one of the other examiners "Weevin" even made a comment about how impressed he was (Weevin" was one of my examiners the year I broke my femur) and I'm told it's hard to impress Weevin to the point that he will actually say something.

I felt the examiners (I had a chance to talk with most of them) were very fair in their decisions and the way they handled the exam. The standard is what it is and we need to be there 90% of the time.

As I talked to the other candidates for the most part they are very happy with the new process. The examiner went out of their way to make the experience a positive one. We all made huge improvements in our skiing. One common comment was "where else can I get 3 days of instruction at this level for only 210.00.

I just talked to the PSIA-W office and they tell me 3 of 16 passed this exam. I don't know how many more are taking the April skiing Module and then they will still need to take the written, essay, and teaching portion of the exam. It is also a fully coached 2 day exam but focused on teaching. That is where we will need to teach and ski our demos.

I'll bring more thoughts as I continue my journey.
post #2 of 17
Thanks Dchan,

It was interesting that in my exam that several members of our group made the comment that coaching during the exam would be pretty pointless. The feeling was "we ski the way we ski and trying to make changes at the last minute was a recipe for total confusion". As a person who tried to coach one of the other exam candidates before the exam, I obviously believed the last minute coaching could be positive (note the candidate explicitly requested to just ski with me and no coaching - he believed in the don't change at the last minute theory -> talk about a coaching challenge!). I personally had tried to get a session with an examiner the day before the exam, but ended up "practising" instead (i.e. coaching my friend instead of trying to change my skiing). So I guess I'm pretty wishy washy on the subject.

Regardless of when it occurs, feedback is a very important piece of the exam process. As much as the level 3 exam standards appear to be "perfect" skiing to mere mortals, the concept that level 3 is merely your license to START to learn how to ski is so true no matter where you take the exam. Even if you pass with flying colors, you get feedback for how to improve. My theory is that those that who do not understand this have a significantly greater chance of failure.

Would you explain some of the tasks in more detail please?
The 5 med, 5 short, (lane changes)
(Was this 5 mediums, followed directly by 5 shorts? The "Eastern" lane changes are 4 short radius turns, followed by 1 medium or long radius turn to shift one or more lanes, followed by 4 short radius turns in the new lane.)

Half hop turns (or hop to a shaped turn, edge set and hop to next shaped turn)
(The "Eastern" hop to shape took off from the uphill edges without an edge set. You were supposed to land on your inside edges above the fall line, then shape the finish. Exactly how did you do your hop to shape?)

One leg only on inside edges (switch each turn)
one leg only on out side edges (switch each turn)
(How do you make turns on your outside edges? Do you mean outside ski?)

Retraction turns while skiing Medium Radius turns through bumps.
(Just a hint here. If you want to own this, perform retraction turns on the groomers where they are not necessary.)

Short swing turns
(Old fashioned straight ski short swing turns? Yikes! Why reinforce failing movement patterns? Don't get me wrong. I love lateral learning. Doing old fashioned turns on modern gear is a hoot. But in an exam???)
post #3 of 17
Great report, Dave! I applaud both you and your performance there, and the exam process and examiners as well. Sounds like they've put a lot of thought into a new format in PSIA-W, making the exam a good experience, whatever the outcome, while holding the line on the very meaningful Level 3 standard. Well done, to all!

As you know, we did a major revamp on our Level 3 exam process several seasons ago, here in Rocky Mountain, and we continue to tweak and improve it. New for this season is that we give feedback and coaching throughout the skiing exam, which is done in stations with multiple examiners scoring each maneuver, and generally the opportunity for several runs at each station. It's been an overwhelming success, judging from the majority of the feedback so far. But we're still working on it, always looking for ways to make the exam better. You can be sure that we'll discuss your report about the West exam over the summer. Thanks again!

Keep it up, and nail it in a month!

Best regards,
Bob
post #4 of 17
As an examiner, I have always had an internal conflict with the idea of coaching candidates through an exam. The RM requirement that a candidate attend certain 'pre-courses' 30 days prior to attending an exam resolves the issue I have with this type of process.

Where I can see that a little assistance would/could make them successful at that particular moment, the ownership of the skills would not be there. On the other hand, most candidates have prepared themselves, and are in a "presentation mode", not a "receiving mode". To ask them to implement changes to their skiing at the last moment is to put them at a disadvantage.

We have tried both exam styles in RM, and I find it truly does screw up the candidate to hear things (possibly negative) about their performance. They try to change and do not succeed, or they get psyched out by the fact the examiner sees something not happening in their skiing.

My personal preference is that the candidate train themselves to the very best performance they can attain, and then bring that performance to the exam. Then it either meets the standard, or it does not. But at least their performance is not being unduly influenced by the examiner.

Then if a candidate wants additional feedback, it is provided after the exam is over.
post #5 of 17
Hi Ric--good to see you yesterday!

I share your concerns about feedback in an exam, and there was a great deal of discussion about the pros and cons over the summer and fall. I think that it comes down to the type of feedback given, and somewhat to the form of its delivery. In particular, I am hesitant to give feedback on some fundamantal movement pattern or skill that would require focused practice before making any real improvement. The skills must be there by exam time. But feedback on tactics (eg. "dial the speed up a notch," or "try a shorter radius, more complete turn") or a simple mechanical focus ("remember your poles in those pivot slips next time") is something that well-prepared candidates can usually implement immediately, and that may show the skills they have.

We have also explicitly invited candidates to decline feedback if they don't want it, or if they they think it will throw them off. All they have to do is tell us, "no feedback, please." I think that, at Level 3 and above, we must all be our own best coaches, and we must know how to deal with feedback both in and outside of an exam setting. Candidates must take responsibility for their performance regardless of the feedback they receive--even if it backfires. That's a Level 3 skill as well! The intent is only to help, to bring out performance capability that is already within the candidate. No candidate should expect to be coached up to a new level of performance, or to blame the examiners for their inability to coach them to a pass!

I have certainly seen a lot of change during the exams. Admittedly, that raises the question that, if it took four runs for a candidate to pass the maneuver, was he really ready, and did he really demonstrate the ownership we need to see? It has occured to me that perhaps we should allow a maximum of, say, three runs for passing a maneuver. After that, time allowing, the candidate can continue to ski through the station and get feedback, but cannot pass the maneuver.

It's a fair argument that even tactics should be nailed before the day of the exam. In a perfect world, with perfect, consistent training for candidates, I could agree with that. We're heading toward perfect, but I don't think we're there yet! I hate to see a skilled, focused, dedicated skier fail an exam simply because he or she did not understand a maneuver the same way as the examiners or because, under the pressure of the exam, he forgot to pay attention to some little component.

For what it's worth, I don't think that the new feedback format is actually raising the pass rate appreciably at Level 3. The standard has still been rigorously adhered to. But it has made the whole process a lot more user-friendly and productive. We've had a lot of very positive feedback on it, with many failing candidates reporting that it was actually an enjoyable, educational, and highly worthwhile experience. To me, that's a very good thing!

The discussion will continue. We have two more Level 3 exams scheduled this season. We'll see how it all shakes out and give it a thorough review over the summer. All feedback is welcome!

Best regards,
Bob
post #6 of 17
Thread Starter 
Own the movements? One run to attain a pass for us was not the goal. The third day of skiing we needed to be skiing the movement patterns 90% of the time throughout the day. Regardless of terrain, speed or task. The examiners were using the tasks to see if we were skiing the movements but it was not so much about "can I bang out a set of dynamic mediums" in 3 attempts. I am sure I can now. Can I ski the movement patterns that a L3 should be skiing all over the mountain 90% of the time, for a whole day, regardless of the terrain, conditions, task or speed? That's where I'm not quite there. Some of my "go to " movements are still old habits that need to be the new movements I've been working on all winter. Tim tells me I'm skiing them about 75-80% of the time.

I would have to say that I think that our new feedback format makes it harder to get the L3 not easier. I think I would have passed if what I had to do was nail each of the tasks 1 of 2 attempts with a practice before each.

I watched some very strong skiers in our L3 groups. Several that I thought were skiing at or above the bar and yet only 3 of the 16 were invited to take the teaching module of the exam. Several of the candidates did some great runs at some of the tasks but clearly were lacking in others, Some I could tell were not anywhere near a pass but clearly most if not all of the candidates learned a lot, were changed skiers, and took a lot away from the process.
post #7 of 17
Thread Starter 
Quote:
Originally Posted by therusty View Post
Would you explain some of the tasks in more detail please?
The 5 med, 5 short, (lane changes)
(Was this 5 mediums, followed directly by 5 shorts? The "Eastern" lane changes are 4 short radius turns, followed by 1 medium or long radius turn to shift one or more lanes, followed by 4 short radius turns in the new lane.)

Half hop turns (or hop to a shaped turn, edge set and hop to next shaped turn)
(The "Eastern" hop to shape took off from the uphill edges without an edge set. You were supposed to land on your inside edges above the fall line, then shape the finish. Exactly how did you do your hop to shape?)

One leg only on inside edges (switch each turn)
one leg only on out side edges (switch each turn)
(How do you make turns on your outside edges? Do you mean outside ski?)

Retraction turns while skiing Medium Radius turns through bumps.
(Just a hint here. If you want to own this, perform retraction turns on the groomers where they are not necessary.)

Short swing turns
(Old fashioned straight ski short swing turns? Yikes! Why reinforce failing movement patterns? Don't get me wrong. I love lateral learning. Doing old fashioned turns on modern gear is a hoot. But in an exam???)
5/5 turns make 5 SR turns, smoothly transition to 5 Med R turns, then transition back to 5 shorts. The task shows how we deal with the change of movements, and the increased speed and pressures built up after making Medium's in order to start making shorts again. I'm sure this is what the PSIA-E task is aiming to do as well. We do tend to build more speed doing 5 mediums rather than just one. Do these in mashed potato consistency snow and it can make for some interesting recoveries.

the hop to shape took several forms. One time it was just as you described, no edge set, One time it was with an edge set to build some pressure so we could use this to get the skis off the ground. Generally they wanted to see us turn the skis at least to the fall line.

One leg skiing outside edge only.. for the right turn, we were making the turn on the right ski little toe side, as we go through the transition, we step onto the left ski, and initiate a left turn again on the little toe side.

Only inside edge, you would ski the big toe side on the outside ski. Switch at the transition. This one was the easy one for most.

The variation could be mixed up even more. We didn't to it at this exam but I've practiced them by making some skidded/steered, some pure carved, etc.. Skidded turns like this almost require a pole touch or plant so you have something to block upper body rotation.

The retraction turns doing Mediums through bumps required active absorption of the bumps while exhibiting the progressive retraction and extension through the turn. Bob's bicycle backpedaling exercise really helped me with this one.

Short swings?

There are times that a modified hop turn in the form of a short swing is the turn of choice. (not often but it happens) Maybe in a very narrow chute that conditions make hop turns too dangerous and not enough space to do a short radius turn, Short swings create less impact and thus less chance for triggering a slide.. It's not so much to see a perfect short swing turn as the task but to see if we can blend the proper movements to create this turn.

In short, the idea of the L3 skiing portion of the exam process is to validate that we own the movements, NOT perform the tasks. The tasks show the examiners where our weakness and strengths are but do not show the overall blend in all conditions.. The variations on the tasks do. (at least this is my understanding of the reason) The other part I understand is that we are trying to bring out movements that are likely to be used in our everyday skiing, not just because they can be done. Hop turns with the heels in contact with the snow for instance shows us how to do a hop turn when we are off balance. Maybe in crud where the was a mogul under the snow and we got kicked into the back seat. Do we have the skills to redirect the ski back across the hill? A quick hop turn with the heels on the snow might just be the trick.
post #8 of 17
Yikes... now you've gotten gotten me scared to death about my own LIII test in April (NW)!

And here I thought I was ready...:

Mike
post #9 of 17
Quote:
Originally Posted by Bob Barnes/Colorado View Post
It has occured to me that perhaps we should allow a maximum of, say, three runs for passing a maneuver. After that, time allowing, the candidate can continue to ski through the station and get feedback, but cannot pass the maneuver.
Bob, I think you are on the right road here (from my now retired perspective). When you hear of one candidate repeating the one last maneuver they had to complete to attain Level 3 over 10 times to pass you can rightly ask did they own that maneuver?

With the station process and maneuver ownership format, has there ever been any discussion of limiting the time of ownership, e.g., the season you pass the maneuver plus two subsequent seasons? It sure seems a lot can change over time and the candidate may no longer really demonstrate the Level 3 skill set but become maneuver focused. Or perhaps requiring candidates to revalidate the full spectrum of their skiing skills through either the dynamic bumps or an off piste run as a condition of final passage to Level 3, even if they had only to pass one other maneuver to pass.

Who knows, just for for thought.

Give my regards to the MA group tonight-I'm off to Denver in a few minutes to tee it up in the first "Play for Pay" event of the season. Given my partner and I have played a combined total of about 5 rounds this spring-THANK GOD IT IS A SCRAMBLE!!!
post #10 of 17
Good thoughts, Mike. Yes, a time limit has been discussed, but we have not yet established one. I think it should be on our agenda for this summer--thanks for the reminder!

An interesting thought, too, about requiring one or more of the high-end blended performance maneuvers each time. Hmm....

Good luck on the green grass. We'll miss you this evening--possibly the last one I'll be able to make (I'll be in Vail next week).

Best regards,
Bob
post #11 of 17
Mike M,

If you're scared to death, you are not ready. Here's one theory - you should know your own skiing and the skiing standards well enough to know that you are ready. If you're not sure, you're not ready. It's possible to pass when you are not ready. It's possible that not passing is a step you must take on your road to becoming ready.

Here's another theory - there is a difference between the level 2 and level 3 standards that you can feel. At level 2 there is a smoothness and a sense of flow on groomers and a sense of competence in challenging terrain or conditions. At level 3, there is a sense of power and control on groomers, a sense of smoothness and flow in challenging terrain or conditions and a sense of competence in challenging terrain under challenging conditions. Level 2 is more about movements to achieve turn shape. Level 3 is more about energy management movements.
post #12 of 17
Quote:
In short, the idea of the L3 skiing portion of the exam process is to validate that we own the movements, NOT perform the tasks. The tasks show the examiners where our weakness and strengths are but do not show the overall blend in all conditions.
True, Dave, but there's room for both in the Level 3 exam, don't you think? I've always said, in agreement with you, that it's not about the maneuvers. They're there only to showcase your skills (or lack thereof). But I think that, at Level 3 especially, it is appropriate to expect an instructor to be able to blend the skills in any particular way requested, just as we must often do when teaching. Great instructors are able not only to show their own "style," but also to demonstrate other styles, techniques, and movement patterns as needed. Can you imitate students' movements as a visual to help them understand? Can you demonstrate a style or tactic that may not be your own preference--a line in bumps, say, that a student might want but that might not be your favorite line?

I like your "90% of the time" idea, but I also like that there are maneuvers you must perform exactly to specifications. These demonstrate discipline and versatility as well as understanding, and expose technical biases that could limit your overall skiing and teaching ability.

All great skiers ski with their own style and demonstrate their own personality when freeskiing or performing at a high level. But great instructors must also be able to demonstrate pure, unbiased and "uncluttered" fundamental movements when needed. Furthermore, while an instructor may own the skills needed 100%, the wrong tactics in a maneuver will often fail to bring them out. Basic Parallel Turns, for example--arguably the fundamental "mother turn" of all good skiing--should demonstrate all the skills needed to shape turns with precision--to "go exactly where you want to go." That means not just letting the skis' sidecut dicate the turn radius, and it means demonstrating that you can blend in active rotary ("leg steering") as needed to shape the turn. Tactics are critical. If you ski too large a turn, there will be no need for active steering, so a great skier will not show it.

That's where our coaching comes in. Skiers who have mastered the skills, demonstrating "the standard" even beyond "90% of the time," may still need a little coaching to bring out the various blends and range of technical and tactical options the examiners need to see. We really can't coach anyone to a higher level of skill on the day of the exam. But we can create new understanding and we can set the stage so that the maneuvers really do showcase those skills that they have brought to the exam. "Try it again, this time with a turn radius smaller than your skis can carve"--simple thoughts like this won't make a skier any more skillful, but it can show existing skills that might not otherwise appear (or, conversly, reveal a critical bias or skill deficiency).

When you think about it, this is exactly why we need to see not just high performance skiing (represented by "dynamic parallel turns," for example), but also "basic parallel turns," "wedge christies," "wedge turns," and performance turns of various size. All of these maneuvers demonstrate (by definition) the exact same set of fundamentals and principles, but with distinctly different characteristics. Wedge christies must demonstrate all of the same principles as high-performance dynamic parallel turns. But it would do beginning students very little good to demonstrate those principles at a skill and speed level inaccessible to them. So we must be able to demonstrate the principles of great turns as they will look and feel to students at any level. Hence--the wedge christie!

(And before anyone tries to turn this into another philosophical or religious debate, let me remind everyone that even the most well-thought-out "direct to parallel" programs, like Aspen's "Beginner Magic," recognize that students are likely to show a wedge of some sort, even as they practice and attempt the movements of "parallel" turns. Wedges happen, whether we explicitly teach them or not. Yes, even Harald Harb, the chief proponent of "Direct Parallel" and wearer of the infamous "NoPlows" pin, states on his site that "The proponents of PMTS Direct Parallel unequivocally understand and acknowledge that a wedge stance may result, even when skiers are taught 'Direct Parallel'." So skip the debate, please!)

Well, our next PSIA-Rocky Mountain Full (Level 3) Certification Exam starts tomorrow in Telluride. Thanks again, Dave, for your report, and thanks to all for your comments and thoughts on this important process. I'll report back from Telluride when I get a chance.

Best regards,
Bob Barnes
post #13 of 17
(Sorry to anyone who suffered through three duplicate posts--I just caught that. I don't know what the heck is going on with my computer!)



Best,
Bob
post #14 of 17
therusty,

Thanks for the insights, although my comment was made mostly in jest. I'm actually pretty comfortable with my own skiing and abilities, and know that if I bring something close to my "A" game I should have a good chance of passing.

Mike
post #15 of 17
Mike,

Good luck. I brought my A game to my first exam try this season and failed. I brought my C game to my second exam try and passed. Go figure!
post #16 of 17
Quote:
Originally Posted by therusty View Post
At level 2 there is a smoothness and a sense of flow on groomers and a sense of competence in challenging terrain or conditions. At level 3, there is a sense of power and control on groomers, a sense of smoothness and flow in challenging terrain or conditions and a sense of competence in challenging terrain under challenging conditions.
What if there is a sense of smoothness and flow in challenging terrain under challenging conditions?
post #17 of 17
There are people who do this. By my standards, I've seen two in my lifetime. They are skiing gods.
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