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and how they affect your skiing.

I'm teaching a fitness instructor workshop at the end of this month. Rather than glaze over the manual, I thought it would be more fun to discuss some of the issues on this forum. Keep in mind that nuscular imbalance is a complex issue, so some of this may be a feable attempt at over-simplification. That being said, here are some general principles.

All of us would probably agree that ski technique is influenced by qualified instruction, as well as proper equipment. However, if someone has a chronic muscular imbalance, they may develop habitual movement patterns that even the best equipment and instruction will not change.

When a muscle over works, we call it hyper tonic. Under working muscles are sometimes called hypo tonic. Here are some muscle groups that often end up in a dysfunctional relationship.

Hyper Tonic Pectorals and Hypo Tonic Lats and Rhomboids: I often see people doing about 6 sets of chest exercises and perhaps one set of back exercises. The result: rounded shoulders and head hunched forward. On the slopes, these folks seem to be hunched over their skis. I some cases, this imbalance can affect shoulder mobility, wjhich can in turn affect pole plant. (Although the pole plant is not initiated in the shoulder, if the shoulder is misaligned, the placement of the hands will be incorrect)

Hyper Tonic Lumbar and Hypo Tonic Abs: Often, these folks are somewhat sway back. On the slopes, they may end up in the back seat.

Tight Hip Flexors and Weak Glutes: This is one of the more complex imbalances, known as reciprocal inhibition. The famous Czech physcial therapist, known as Vladmir Janda, called this "lower cross syndrome." It is characterized by of tight hip flexors and a tight lower back that are paired with weak abdominals and weak glutes. This combination leads to swayback, a protruding abdomen, and a flat butt due to weakness in the glutes. Not only does this imbalance cause back trouble, it can put a skier in the back seat. The overly tight hip flexors can also impede movement fluidity and transitions between turns.

Hyper Tonic Quads and Hypo Tonic Hamstrings: This is very common in women. Unfortunately, it can make you susceptible to ACL injury. Make sure that you balance your hamstring exercises with your quad exercises.

These are just a few to start with. Now, who is brave enough to post a photo in this thread?