Teachers get days off for staff development and makeup time for teacher/parent conferences that occur at night. They also get sick days like most salaried employees. Students get a fair amount of days off throughout the school year. Most of the staff development is mandated by the state to keep your license up-to-date.
Right but they also get time off for actual vacations, it's not just makeup time for the occasional conference (which as someone who worked for the school district by the time I left two hours after the final bell rarely was anyone other than myself and the janitors there). I believe the district I used to work for gave ten personal days per year to the teachers.
That is something that from my observations is different in the US school system to other places. When I got married one of our best friends (an English teacher in Mexico) couldn't make it because she couldn't even get one day off for that. Likewise my sister-in-law had to leave after the wedding reception and drive through the night to get home to teach class on Monday because they don't allow time off during the year. The only exception is attending a funeral and even then it has to be a close family relation (parent, sibling, grandparent, etc.).