I got talking to an older ultra-athlete who is world level in his age group. He is well into the system used by a lot of swimmers and long distance guys. Eat enough protein throughout the day to do all the repair/build/rebuild of muscle, eat enough carbohydrate at the same time to prevent ketosis and provide most of the rest of the calorific requirements in mono-unsaturated fat.
The amount of protein needed depends on your lean body mass ~1g of protein per lb of LBM times your excercise level. (1.0 = olympic athlete, 0.5 = couch potato, regular excercise bod =0.7, keen excercise bod =0.8) For each 7g of protein you need to eat about 10g of carbohydrate.
The approximate 7g/10g balance maximises the release of HGF needed for repair and rebuild after excercise and during sleep. Excess carbohydrate, if it results in raised insulin levels, can inhibit the release of HGF so just drinking sugary drinks after excercise can slow down the recovery process despite refilling the glycogen stores.
The balance of protein and carbs maximises the fat burning capabilities and stops you running solely on glycogen which only lasts about 10 mins from the liver stores (excluding muscles). Hence that pleasant second-wind feeling.
Remember the anti-oxidents after excercise and before sleep too!
Boy all this thought of excercise is making me tired!