Sounds like a shitty gym.
A DB squat w/ DBs held at your sides, is my favorite squat. Since the weights are hanging, you will always naturally have them inline, reducing the torque, which makes the exercise healthier without sacrificing leg strength/performance. The required upper back stability is greater in the DB squat, more comparable to the loading of the deadlift. Not to mention if you run in to trouble, you can just drop the DBs to the floor, instead of being trapped under the bar. Plus holding the heavy weights in your hands, will also work your grip.
Most gyms have DB's up to 120, so that's a 240lbs squat. Which is something most will struggle with far greater than a 315 back squat.
Doing split squat/ one leg versions with DB's will also allow you to double up the load. Safer and more effective than a back squat.
From a skier standpoint. A DB squat requires a narrower stance, that has more carryover to skiing, than a traditional squat stance. It's also a better upper body exercise.
A front squat would be limited to the amount of weight you can clean. Which for many isn't really a problem. If it is for you, then you should just do more cleans, focusing on catching it deep.
Not that I have anything against, back squats or barbell squats. They are great exercises in their own right. For most untrained people especially women, a back squat is more effective than a DB squat, where the limit is often on the arms/upper body.
Pretty lame gym to not have a squat rack available.